Friday, April 30, 2010

PKPIM anjur Forum "Keadilan Untuk Adik Aminulrasyid"

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Persatuan Kebangsaan Pelajar Islam Malaysia (PKPIM) dengan kerjasama Dewan Perhimpunan Cina Kuala Lumpur & Selangor (KLSCAH) akan menganjurkan Forum “Keadilan Untuk Adik Aminulrasyid” pada 4 Mei 2010 iaitu pada hari Selasa pukul 8.00 malam di Dewan Perhimpunan Cina Kuala Lumpur & Selangor (KLSCAH), Jalan Maharajalela, Kuala Lumpur.

Tujuan forum ini diadakan adalah sebagai platform untuk menjawab persoalan-persoalan yang belum terungkai di samping memahami isu ini dengan lebih mendalam khususnya dalam aspek hak asasi manusia dan perundangan. Selain itu, penganjuran forum ini juga adalah untuk memupuk kesedaran dalam kalangan mahasiswa dan masyarakat sivil sebagai pendukung hak asasi rakyat secara umum dengan menitikberatkan peranan mereka yang sememangnya penting dalam usaha memastikan masyarakat terus konsisten menyedari akan hak asasi yang dimiliki mereka.

Dalam pada itu, Forum “Keadilan untuk adik Aminulrasyid” ini akan menampilkan tiga orang panel jemputan. Mereka adalah N. Surendran selaku peguam untuk keluarga adik Aminulrasyid, Raja Badrol Hisham merangkap pensyarah Undang-undang Prosedur Jenayah, Universiti Islam Antarabangsa (UIAM), dan Wong Chin Huat dari Civil Rights Committee. Sementara itu, forum yang akan dipengerusikan oleh Presiden PKPIM Muhammad Faisal Abdul Aziz juga akan dimulakan dengan bacaan puisi “Jeritan Senja September” oleh Sasterawan Negara, Dato A. Samad Said.

Sehubungan dengan itu, pihak PKPIM menjemput kepada semua pihak khususnya golongan mahasiswa untuk hadir beramai-ramai dalam forum berkenaan sebagai tanda sokongan terhadap usaha murni yang dijalankan ini untuk memastikan keadilan dan ketelusan ditegakkan khusunya dalam siasatan yang akan dilakukan oleh pihak polis.

Dalam perkembangan berkaitan, PKPIM juga mengharapkan semoga kehadiran seluruh anggota masyarakat dapat menjayakan objektif forum yang akan dijalankan tersebut untuk menjana tenaga mahasiswa dan masyarakat sebagai pendukung hak asasi rakyat di samping melahirkan sebuah masyarakat yang mengambil peduli tentang isu yang berlaku ini.

Wednesday, April 28, 2010

ANALISA PRK HULU SELANGOR: Kemenangan yang tak perlu dibanggakan

Sumber: Malaysiakini

Sebaik keputusan pilihan raya kecil parlimen Hulu Selangor diumumkan, kalungan tahniah dan puji-pujian melimpah sesama pemimpin Barisan Nasional. Namun jika diteliti, kemenangan oleh P Kamalanathan itu bukan sesuatu yang membanggakan.

Majoriti yang diperolehinya adalah 1,725 undi dan jika undi pos sebanyak 627 yang terdiri daripada anggota keselamatan yang lazimnya berpihak kepada BN diketepikan, BN cuma mendapat majoriti 1,078.

Jumlah itu agak jauh lebih kecil daripada jumlah undi 6,176 yang dimenangi oleh BN di tiga kerusi dewan undangan negeri yang terletak di parlimen Hulu Selangor pada pilihan raya umum 2008 lalu.

Ini menjelaskan mengapa Timbalan Pengerusi BN, Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin pada hari pengundian begitu yakin Kalamanathan mampu menang dengan sekurang-kurangnya majoriti 6,000 undi.

'Undi pecah'

Pada pilihan raya umum yang lalu, pengundi memberikan undi mereka kepada PKR pada peringkat persekutuan tetapi bagi kerusi negeri, mereka memilih BN.

Antara fakt

or yang mempengaruhi trend pengundian ketika itu adalah kerana rakyat di Hulu Selangor, khususnya masyarakat Melayu dikatakan cukup tidak berpuas hati dengan G Palanivel dari MIC yang memegang kerusi parlimen berkenaan dari 1990 hingga 2008.


Sebelum ini, MIC berkeras mahukan timbalan presiden mereka sekali bertanding di Hulu Selangor, namun akar umbi, Umno menentang keputusan itu.

Tindakan itu menyaksikan BN kali ini meletakkan muka baru dengan mengetengahkan Ketua Penerangan MIC, P Kamalanathan.

Selain calon muka baru, Perdana Menteri, Datuk Seri Najib Razak juga mengumpan penduduk Hulu Selangor dengan pelbagai janji dan sogokan.

Dua yang palin

g ketara ialah peruntukkan RM3 juta untuk SRJK (C) Rasa dan RM5 juta sebagai bayaran pampasan peneroka Felda Sungai Buaya. Namun umpan itu dengan syarat jika BN memenangi kerusi Hulu Selangor.

Di sebalik semua itu, BN masih gagal mengubah trend pengundian kerana majoriti yang diperolehi mereka pada Ahad lalu masih kekurangan 4,451 daripada apa yang sepatutnya dikumpul daripada tiga kerusi negeri pada pemilihan 2008.

Majoriti yang dimenangi BN hanya mewakili 3.5 peratus daripada jumlah undi yang dibuang dan dianggap antara yang paling rendah. Lazimnya majoriti BN berlegar melebihi paras 8,000 undi sejak 1990.

Justeru, Hulu Selangor tidak lagi boleh dikatakan kubu kuat BN.

Najib yang menyedari hakikat berkenaan, cuba mengelak soalan wartawan apabila ditanya sama ada keputusan pilihan raya itu adalah bukti rakyat menyokong agenda pembaharuannya.

Sebelum ini, Najib dilaporkan berkata pilihan raya kecil Hulu Selangor adalah medan terbaik sebagai pungutan suara bagi rancangan pembaharuannya termasuk Model Ekonomi Malaysia, gagasan 1Malaysia dan program tranformasi kerajaan.

Melayu sokong BN, Cina undi Pakatan

Bagi tujuan perbandingan, keputusan pilihan raya kecil Hulu Selangor hampir menyerupai keputusan pilihan raya di Bukit Gantang dan Bagan Pinang yang menyaksikan pertambahan undi Melayu untuk BN dan pada masa yang sama peningkatan sokongan masyarakat Cina kepada Pakatan Rakyat.

Ini amat ketara sekali di Hulu Selangor apabila BN menang di semua daerah mengundi yang mempunyai majoriti masyarkat Melayu manakala Pakatan menyapu bersih di kawasan Cina.

Pada pusingan kali ini, dianggarkan BN berjaya menguasai 65 peratus undi Melayu yang sekali gus meranapkan harapan PKR untuk merampas sekurang-kurangnya 40 peratus undi Melayu.

Sebagai rujukan, berikut sampel enam daerah mengundi yang mempunyai majoriti pengundi Melayu: Kpg Soeharto (66.1 peratus mengundi BN), Gedangsa (60.6), Sungai Tengi (68.4), Batang Kali (61), Hulu Kali (62.7) dan Sungai Buaya (73.5).

Menurut laporan akar umbi, insentif kewangan yang ditaburkan oleh Najib dan konco-konco BN serta serangan peribadi ke atas calon PKR, Datuk Zaid Ibrahim, sedikit sebanyak mempengaruhi pengundi Melayu.

Namun umpan dan serangan berkenaan tidak berkesan di kalangan masyarakat Cina seperti yang dilihat pada sampel daerah mengundi yang mempunyai majoriti pengundi Cina.

Sampelnya seperti berikut: Kalumpang (77.2 peratus mengundi PKR), Ulu Yam Timur (71.1), Kerling (68), Kuala Kubu Bharu (78.4), Kampung Baru Batang Kali (80.5), Ulu Yam Lama (71.1) dan Kampung Baru Rasa (82.5).

Sepanjang tempoh berkempen, PKR dan DAP menjaja isu Muhyiddin yang mengakui bahawa dia adalah Melayu terlebih dahulu dan kemudian baru rakyat Malaysia.

Selain itu, kenyataan Datuk Seri Noh Omar yang menggesa masyarakat India dan Cina supaya berterima-kasih kerana diberi taraf warga negara serta isu kematian Teoh Beng Hock terus menjadi modal mereka.

MCA ternyata tidak berdaya menangkis atau mampu memberikan jawapan yang bertenaga tetapi sebaliknya terpaksa membawa Najib datang ke Hulu Selangor untuk menaburkan janji-janji.

Bagi sesetengah penganalisis, pemenang terbesar pada pilihan raya kecil Hulu Selangor ini adalah masyarakat Cina. Ini kerana mereka berjaya menyampaikan mesej secara jelas kepada BN dan pada masa yang sama, menerima habuan ataupun akan menerima ganjaran yang dijanjikan.

Apa seterusnya?

Di kalangan pengundi India, PKR hanya memenangi satu daripada lima daerah mengundi yang mempunyai majoriti pengundi India.

Ada yang berpendapat kegagalan PKR menarik sokongan masyarakat India adalah kerana kerajaan negeri Selangor lembap dalam menagani masalah yang dihadapi oleh komuniti itu.

Kegagalan Pakatan Rakyat mendapatkan sokongan daripada Hindu Rights Action Force (Hindraf) dan Parti Hak Asasi Manusia juga dikatakan membawa padah.

Tuesday, April 27, 2010

PKPIM LANCAR KEMPEN “KEADILAN UNTUK ADIK AMINULRASYID”

Persatuan Kebangsaan Pelajar Islam Malaysia (PKPIM) merujuk kepada kes seorang pelajar yang bernama Aminulrasyid Hamzah yang berusia 15 tahun yang dilaporkan mati ditembak oleh anggota polis peronda dalam satu insiden di Shah Alam awal pagi semalam.

PKPIM berpandangan pihak polis tidak wajar melepaskan tembakan ke atas pelajar berkenaan memandangkan pelajar tersebut bukan dalam keadaan yang membahayakan. Sebaliknya, pihak polis masih boleh menggunakan pelbagai cara untuk memastikan pelajar terbabit menyerah diri.

Tambahan pula, mangsa terbabit masih dikategorikan dalam lingkungan bawah umur dan masih bersekolah di Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Seksyen 9, Shah Alam. Maka, bagi PKPIM kes pembunuhan yang trajis ini adalah sesuatu yang mengejutkan dan tidak seharusnya berlaku.

Ekoran itu, sebagai persatuan yang memayungi seluruh pelajar Islam di Malaysia. PKPIM atas rasa tanggungjawab telah melancarkan kempen “Keadilan Untuk Aminulrasyid” melalui kumpulan facebook sebagai suatu anjakan kesedaran kepada seluruh masyarakat untuk menuntut keadilan terhadap kematian seorang pelajar ini.

Kempen yang bergerak melalui kumpulan facebook “Keadilan Untuk Adik Aminulrasyid” ini juga bertujuan untuk menghimpunkan seramai mungkin anggota masyarakat yang prihatin terhadap keluarga mangsa berkenaan. Maka, menerusi suara ini kita akan mendesak agar pihak polis serius dan mengutamakan keadilan dalam melakukan siasatan terhadap insiden yang memalukan ini agar insiden yang sama tidak berulang akibat dari kecuaian pihak polis.

Dalam perkembangan berkaitan, kita juga akan menuntut agar pihak yang berkaitan khususnya media bersifat telus dalam melaporkan setiap siasatan polis kepada orang ramai.

MUHAMMAD FAISAL ABDUL AZIZ

Presiden,

Persatuan Kebangsaan Pelajar Islam Malaysia (PKPIM)

Friday, April 23, 2010

PKPIM Proaktif Dalam agenda Ta'dib

Artikel ini tersiar dalam Sinar Harian 22 April 2010.

Persatuan Kebangsaan Pelajar Islam Malaysia (PKPIM) menyambut baik titah Raja Muda Perak, Raja Dr. Nazrin Shah pada istiadat menghadap sembah taat setia dan penganugerahan darjah kebesaran negeri sempena sambutan Ulang Tahun Hari Keputeraan Ke-82 Sultan Perak. Baginda menekankan perihal adab sebagai penentu terhadap jatuh bangunnya pemimpin, bangsa dan negara disamping membentuk sebuah masyarakat dan negara bangsa yang stabil lagi makmur.
Adab yang dimaksudkan di sini, ialah “meletakkan sesuatu pada tempatnya”.

Namun,hasrat murni ini tidak akan tercapai sekiranya insiden-insiden salah laku akhlak yang berlaku dalam kalangan masyarakat sekarang seperti sudah menjadi rutin kebiasaaan. Sebagai contoh, persidangan Parlimen Malaysia yang menjadi tumpuan ramai akibat isu-isu yang hangat dibangkitkan. Malangnya, kehangatan yang timbul bukanlah kerana perdebatan ilmiah ataupun intelektual yang berlaku di antara ahli parlimen tentang isu-isu sentral, tetapi pokok perbahasan lebih tertumpu kepada pergaduhan penuh emosi yang menggambarkan ketidakmatangan ahli politik kita. Hal ini juga berkait rapat dengan suasana kempen pilihanraya yang dilihat sebagai medan untuk menabur fitnah dan adu domba sehinggakan masyarakat begitu muak dan jelik dengan permainan politik murahan pihak-pihak tertentu yang berkepentingan.

Persoalannya, Apakah wajar bagi pemimpin negara, yang dipilih oleh rakyat sebagai wakil mereka bagi menentukan dasar-dasar negara, bersikap dengan penuh biadab? Apakah tiada makna dan nilai pada kata ‘adab’ itu sehingga mereka seolah-olah lupa bahawa antara tanggungjawab penting sebagai seorang pemimpin itu adalah memupuk ‘adab’; menjadikan seorang manusia bersikap dengan sikap dan akhlak yang sesuai bagi seorang manusia.

Perkara ini turut mendapat perhatian oleh Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin ketika baginda merasmikan persidangan parlimen baru-baru ini. Paling memalukan, peringatan kepada Ahli-Ahli Parlimen (MP) supaya mempamerkan tingkah laku dan tutur kata yang mencerminkan keperibadian sebenar sebagai wakil rakyat telah berlarutan semenjak dua penggal berturut-turut.

Pada dimensi lain, kebejatan sosial yang berlaku dewasa ini juga perlu dijadikan kayu ukur bahawa masyarakat memerlukan perubahan drastik segera sebelum ianya membarah sehingga tiada ubat dan rawatan yang boleh diberikan. Hari ini kita dihidangkan pelbagai statistik demi statistik yang dikeluarkan oleh pihak tertentu menunjukkan data dan jumlah terkini pelbagai penyakit sosial seperti jenayah ragut, rogol, buang bayi, buli dan lain-lain yang berlaku dalam masyarakat kebelakangan ini. Pada hemat saya, biarpun statistik yang ada menunjukkan bahawa kes-kes seperti ini perlu diambil perhatian oleh pihak berwajib tetapi realiti sebenarnya adalah banyak lagi kes-kes terpencil lain yang tidak dikesan atau tidak dilaporkan.

Akar permasalahan kepada masalah ini bertitik tolak daripada masalah ilmu dimana berlaku kekeliruan dan kesilapan persepi dalam memahami ilmu (confusion and error in knowledge). Kekeliruan ini akhirnya menghasilkan apa yang dijelaskan oleh Prof. Syed Naquib Al-Attas sebagai masalah kehilangan adab (loss of adab). Maksud kehilangan adab ini boleh dijelaskan sebagai "kegagalan seseorang dalam mengenali dan memahami ilmu sehingga meletakkan sesuatu perkara tersebut di tempat yang tidak sepatutnya sehingga menghasilkan ketidakadilan kepada diri dan masyarakat."

Dua keadaan ini, iaitu kekeliruan dan kesilapan persepsi dalam memahami ilmu yang juga turut disulami dengan masalah kehilangan adab akan menghasilkan masalah dahsyat dalam masyarakat. Antara masalah yang timbul ialah lahirnya para pemimpin yang tidak layak dalam memimpin kerana tidak mempunyai kualiti akhlak, intelek dan spiritual yang sepatutnya sebagai seseorang pemimpin dalam semua lapangan baik di rumah mahupun di institusi-institusi pemerintahan.


Bencana ini akhirnya akan menghasilkan satu kitaran kepimpinan yang lemah atau pusaran ganas (vicious cycle) apabila kekeliruan dan kesilapan persepi terhadap ilmu ini meresap ke dalam insitusi pendidikan yang sangat penting dan dominan dalam membentuk seseorang manusia itu.Dengan realiti tersebut, adalah menjadi satu keperluan yang mendesak untuk sistem pendidikan kita di negara ini meletakkan pembentukan akhlak dan peribadi yang baik itu sebagai keutamaan. Hal ini kerana sistem pendidikan dilihat dekat kepada kelompok generasi muda. Golongan ini merupakan aset negara yang akan menentukan hala tuju negara. Sekiranya tiada penumpuan khusus kepada golongan ini, dikhuatiri kita menempah masa depan yang tidak menentu. Oleh sebab itu, sebagai warganegara yang bijak, pembangunan generasi muda secara menyeluruh perlu digerakkan.


Namun, proses pendidikan moden yang diamalkan sekarang mengalami satu krisis kekeliruan yang perlu diperbaiki. Antara permasalahan itu ialah;

1) Levelling of Knowledge- Hal ini boleh disimpulkan sebagai menyamaratakan semua ilmu berada di tahap yang setara, tidak kira ilmu wahyu atau duniawi. Dalam tradisi keilmuan Islam, ilmu pengenalan tentang Tuhan (Akidah) diangkat di tempat yang paling utama dan penting, kemudian ibadat, akhlak, bahasa, sirah dan barulah ilmu- ilmu semasa. Malangnya, apa yang berlaku pada hari ini ialah subjek akidah adalah subjek yang terpinggir (marginalised subject),atau ianya dianggap sebagai cukup syarat sahaja terutamanya di peringkat pengajian tinggi (IPT). Keghairahan dan obsesi terhadap disiplin sains dan teknologi menyebabkan semua penumpuan, pelaburan, perancangan dasar dan pembangunan idealisme dilonggokkan di bidang itu. Tidak salah mengatakan bahawa subjek tersebut tidak penting, tetapi apakah kita tidak terfikir anologi yang dibawa oleh seorang ilmuwan yang mengatakan "Dalam masa 50 tahun mereka (manusia) telah menjadi lebih pandai dan handal dalam ilmu penerbangan daripada burung yang telah terbang lebih dari 50 ribu tahun. Akan tetapi burung tahu akan kadar sayapnya; tahu akan luasan dan batasan pengembaraan dan penaungannya; tahu akan tugas dan tujuannya sebab telah diilhamkan demikian, sehingga tiada jadi kekeliruan di tempat masing- masing".


2) Konsep Fardu Ain- Kifayah Disalah Erti- Biasanya kita akan tamat mengenali 'fardu ain' selepas tempoh persekolahan atau tahap baligh. Kemudian apabila seseorang itu memasuki alam universiti atau perkahwinan, tumpuan harus diberikan kepada ilmu fardu kifayah. Secara kronologinya memang tidak salah, akan tetapi ini bukan 'zero- sum- game'; tinggal fasa 'ilmu fardu ain', tinggalkan secara total dan masuk 'fasa fardu kifayah'. Umpama (Fardu Ain vs Kifayah; 0: 1).

Islam sebenarnya menitikberatkan bahawa kedua-dua (fardu ain dan kifayah) mesti berjalan serentak. Apa yang berlaku hari ini ialah, fasa mengenal ilmu fardu kifayah, langsung ditinggalkan ilmu fardu ain, yang semestinya meningkat kefahamannya berdasarkan pengalaman ilmu dan umur kita. Apakah faham kita tentang akidah ketika darjah 1 sama dengan faham ketika tingkatan 4? Semestinya ada perbezaan sedikit. Apatah lagi bila faham ketika tingkatan 5 akan berbeza dengan umur 40 tahun?

Hatta ibadah umat Islam yang berumur 10 tahun akan berbeza dengan umur 25 tahun, dari segi bacaannya, kefahamannya, hafazannya dan sebagainya. Oleh yang demikian pencarian kebahagian dalam hidup ini tidak boleh ada dualisme dalam kehidupan kita. Jika kita tidak meletakkan ilmu fardu ain di tempat yang sewajarnya, maka kita telah melakukan kezaliman. Sebab itu juga ramai yang cemerlang dalam ilmu fardu kifayah, akan tetapi 'kering' dari segi ikatan kefahaman agama yang benar dan mendalam. Makanya, ada yang jadi profesional atau pemimpin sesebuah organisasi, tetapi tidak malu dengan korupsi dan kemungkaran akhlak. Ini semua berlaku kerana faham ilmu akidahnya setakat darjah 1!


Sebenarnya, jika diperhatikan pada hari ini adalah kita terlalu memberikan penekanan kepada proses pembentukan warganegara yang baik (good citizen) dan bukannya kepada pembentukan manusia yang baik (good man).Tidak dinafikan bahawa sebagai sebuah negara membangun, kita perlu melahirkan ramai tenaga kerja yang mahir dan berketrampilan untuk mendokong dan menguruskan proses pembangunan. Namun, apalah ertinya pembangunan infrastruktur dan material jika tidak diiringi secara seimbang dan adil dengan pembangunan manusia yang berkualiti? Manusia yang berkualiti, sudah tentu, tidak hanya punya kemahiran dan pengetahuan untuk mengurus segala sistem yang ada di persekitarannya, tetapi yang lebih penting daripada itu adalah punya kemahiran untuk mengurus dirinya sendiri serta mengurus hubungannya dengan orang lain.

Atas kesedaran inilah, inisiatif murni Persatuan Kebangsaan Pelajar Islam Malaysia (PKPIM) sebagai sebuah NGO gerakan pelajar peringkat kebangsaan yang telah melancarkan “Gagasan Ta’dib Kepemudaan” dalam usaha menyelesaikan krisis dan masalah generasi muda Malaysia harus dilihat sebagai pendekatan proaktif yang positif. Ta’dib bermaksud keadaan di mana seseorang kenal tempat letak sesuatu dan akhirnya bertindak berdasarkan pengenalan tersebut. Pelancaran gagasan ini juga selaras dengan resolusi yang diputuskan bersama oleh pimpinan PKPIM Pusat dalam usaha ke arah untuk membentuk suatu generasi yang ideal dan mampu menjadi suri tauladan terbaik kepada umat secara keseluruhan.

Dengan bermotokan Meneraju Generasi “Baldatun Thoyyibatun Wa Rabbun Ghafur”, gagasan ini juga akan mengambil kira perencanaaan jangka panjang yang meliputi kerangka 25 tahun dalam melahirkan masyaraat yang adil dan makmur.Menurut Presiden PKPIM, Saudara Muhammad Faisal Abdul Aziz, “Matlamat akhir gagasan ini adalah untuk menjadi medium penerus kesinambungan kepada kebangkitan ledakan ubudiyyah sekitar era 70-an lalu”.

Justeru, persoalan-persoalan yang dibangkitakan oleh Raja Nazrin tentang bagaimanakah rupa bentuk negara bangsa yang akan terbina nanti sekiranya elemen adab dan adat sudah tidak lagi ada di kalangan warganya. Adakah lengkap ukuran sebuah negara maju, sebuah negara kaya, jika warganya mundur dengan adab dan miskin dengan adat perlu kita jawab dengan sebaiknya. Jawapan kepada persoalan ini hanya akan terungkai sekiranya penglibatan dan kerjasama aktif dan partisipatif oleh pihak Badan Bukan Kerajaan (NGO), pihak kerajaan mahupun swasta dan orang perseorangan dalam menjayakan agenda ta’dib ini. Peranan ini juga boleh dimainkan oleh institusi agama melalui mimbar masjid yang dilihat sebagai pemangkin yang kuat dalam memberi peringatan mingguan kepada umat Islam agar menekankan kepentingan beradab dalam kehidupan seharian.

Disediakan oleh:

Ahmad Fahmi bin Mohd Samsudin
Exco Penerangan,
Persatuan Kebangsaan Pelajar Islam Malaysia (PKPIM)
871112-11-5181


Sekreteriat PKPIM Pusat
Lot 2965, Jalan Kampung Tengah 7,
Kampung Tengah, Batu 6 1/2, Jalan Gombak,
53100 Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
Tel (P) : +603-6184 2286
Tel (HP): +6013-222 6925

Tuesday, April 20, 2010

Islamic Economics: “Has Islamic Economics developed into a full fledged discipline yet?

Abstract

Islamic Economics is now the most debated topic in most of the Muslim developing countries nowadays. The issues of implementing an Islamic economics system is not only being discussed in the third world Muslim countries and developing countries, but also in well-established countries such as The United States of America, The United Kingdom and many other European countries where the conventional economics theory is highly recognized and being practised widely there. We recall that it is the conventional economics that dominates almost every part of the world. Its modern economic thinking and ideologies have been widely accepted and has successfully developed throughout the decades. The conventional system manages to uphold its discipline after going through years of painstaking process of development spanning over more than a century. The developments were done successfully without any interruptions. Everything was in order and went accordingly as it was reflected in the publication of numerous journals, books and research reports throughout the entire world. Everyone participated and took place in the development. This includes individuals, students, universities, researchers and government. Despite the achievement that Islamic economics has made over 30 years, the development process of Islamic economics as a scientific discipline has a long way to go in order to offer a complete and comprehensive economic system. Therefore, this paper will critically discuss whether Islamic Economics has developed into a fully fledged discipline. The writer will further elaborate on this topic by explaining the issues arising within the development of Islamic economics and also the recommendations for those issues.

Introduction

When Muslims struggled to get freedom from colonization all over the world, it was necessary for them to take a stand on how they would organize the country after they got independence. One of the important elements in the demand for freedom was the idea that Muslims would be free to practice their religion. Muslim leaders all over the world appealed to Muslims to participate in the struggles for liberation in the name of Islam in term of social, political and economic system. Thus, in 1976 the term “Islamic Economics” came into light after the international conference made in Makkah al-Mukkarramah. This conference and several follow-up conferences and seminars motivated several Muslim economists to explore the theory of Islamic economics and economic system that teachings of Islam entail.

Allah (swt) says:

كُنْتُمْ خَيْرَ أُمَّةٍ أُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ تَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَتَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ

"You are the best of the nation raised up for mankind because you enjoin what is right and forbid the wrong and believe in Allah”(Al-Quran Surah Ali-Imran 3:110)

Allah (swt) has blessed us as being the best nation raised up from humanity because we enjoin the good and forbid the evil – we need to realise our responsibility of speaking our against the evil and injustice that we see globally today. One of these great evils we see around us is the economic injustice and oppression caused the world over by the current capitalist world order.

The current financial crisis has seriously eroded confidence in the Western world and has exposed the free market. However the Western world when looking at alternatives only see remnants of Socialism or some state intervention in economy as feasible and workable systems. It is also this reason that allows free market ideologues to continue citing more regulation, transparency i.e. more capitalism with some tinkering as solutions.


This crisis represents an opportunity for all Muslims to present the Islamic economic system as an alternative. We have to realize to consider that when Marx wrote his theories of Communism in the 1800’s whilst sitting in Britain, his ideas although many people disagreed with them were seen as a viable alternative, this is why Lenin later took up these ideas, formed a party based upon them and they were eventually embodied in a state. This occurred even though these were new theories that had no history of implementation. We have to then consider that unlike Marx who denied the existence of Allah and whose ideas were disproved by the clear reality of the failure of Communism, we have the truth from Allah (swt) and also have a history of the implementation of Islam.

The economic system of Islam derived from the Quran and the Sunnah and over a thousand years of history of its implementation. Based upon this we must initiate thinking amongst the ‘left’ and the right’ and to demonstrate to them how Islam is not just a religion like the others but is a comprehensive ideology able to deal with the current crisis’s that humanity is faced with.

Despite the achievement that Islamic economic has made over 30 years, the development process of Islamic economics as a scientific discipline has a long way to go in order to offer a complete and comprehensive economic system. Although some people might disagree, it is undeniably true that the Islamic Economics has not developed into a full fledged discipline because of the nature and definition, narrow scope of perspectives and lack of impacts towards the development of Islamic economics.

Argument 1

First and foremost there are uniformity of opinions among Muslim economist related to nature and definition of Islamic Economics. The diversity of opinions among Muslim economists is extreme. In my view, the Islamic economists do not mutually agree even on the definition of “Islamic Economics,” and no clear model of what an ideal Islamic economic system would look like in concrete and practical terms. Their views can be classified into two categories. The first category includes opinions of the minority group, which regard Islamic Economics as a branch of general science of Economics and should not be considered an independent discipline. Among the scholars who are the main exponents of this viewpoint are Laliwala, Haq, and Siddiqui.

Laliwala (1989) in his writings has endeavoured to integrate Islamic Economics with the secular science of Economics. He holds that:

“Economic literature insists on the acceptance of Islamic goals, its Godly, Universal, brotherly vision, and its specific terminology like Zakah, Sadaqah, Infaq, Waqf, Shirkah, Modaraba, Riba etc. Islamic definition of economics should not be separated from the general definition of economics. The laws of Islamic Economics remain the same; even the behaviour of economic agents become moral and is not found to be selfish and self given in the Islamic society. The centralization of Islamic values will not change the laws of science of Economics.”(pg.129)

The other scholar was Haque (1992) whereby he views the new disciplines as a fruitless effort of the Muslim Economists because he finds a clear dichotomy between religion and modern sciences. The progress of science critically depends upon formulation of testable and refutable hypotheses while religious faith implies absolute certainty of final truth. Hence, he contends that efforts to develop the new discipline cannot succeed. Moreover he is also critical of the religious-legalistic approach of Islamic Economics because it does not help in understanding the operation of modern economy. He says, the interpretation of the terms Riba, Zakat and etc. will vary from feudal to modern times as over-all economic conditions have changed. He also considers Riba, Mudarabah, and etc as medieval categories having no relevance in modern times. As a matter of fact, he is doubtful about the efficacy of Islam in providing a viable solution to the economic problems of human beings.

On the other hand, a dominant majority of Muslim economists have offered more plausible views about the concept and scope of Islamic Economics. Mannan, Khurshid, Hasanuz Zaman, Akram Khan and Arif are articulate advocates of this group.

Mannan (1986) defines Islamic Economics as a:

“Social Science which studies the economic problems of people imbued with the values of Islam” (pg.18)

Mannans definition tries to bring back the focus of Islamic Economics to the right direction. In his conception, this new discipline studies economic behaviour in the ordinary business of life of the Islamically inspired and practicing Muslims. This definition, however, creates unnecessary boundaries of practicing and non-practicing Muslims. Another deficiency which ties in his definition relates to identifying economic problems in the same way as in secular economics. For instance is the relationship between unlimited wants and scarce means.

Hasanuz Zaman (1984) has suggested a tentative definition of Islamic Economics. According to him:

“Islamic Economics is the knowledge and application of its functions and rules of Shariah that prevent injustice in the acquisition and disposal of material resources in order to provide satisfaction to human beings and enable them to perform their obligations to Allah and the society.” (pg. 85)

This definition suffers from certain limitations. Firstly, it reduces economic problem to acquisition and disposal of resources -which may broadly be interpreted as production and distribution activities. In other words, it does not cover the consumption and exchange aspects of economics. Next, this definition does not include those situations of economic activities which can be generalized from Islamic history through inductive reasoning. Lastly, it tends to limit the overall scope of the science of Islamic Economics.

From the definition above, the writer can conclude that these diverse definitions from the scholars will lead to the different implications for the development of the discipline. It is true since nowadays there are still many Muslim that is not aware with the worldview and discussion of Islamic economics and the problem might affect in term of understanding of the subject for those who are new in the field of Islamic Economics especially for the new generation and also the Non-Muslim. Because of the different views and understanding of Islamic economics, thus, it is not been put together into a comprehensive model. There is lack of uniformity. This is yet another problem which needs to be addressed both at scholarly and also the operational levels.

Argument 2

Secondly, Muslims look at Islamic Economics from narrow scope of perspectives. Moreover, we are still in need of human capital, manpower, resources that really competent to expand Islamic economics and could strive together in developing the Islamic economics. Most Muslim nowadays is psychologically defeated when we talk about the objective and goals of an Islamic economics system. This is because we are trapped in the conventional system for centuries and to revive it is something impossible to certain people, there are also people who downgraded the effort of striving for Islamic economics.

According to Khaled (2009), Muslim leaders all over the world have been faced with the problem with the problem of diagnosing the cause of the ills of Muslim society and prescribing cures. An inferiority complex has led them to imitate Western approach without critical thought about those aspects of Western knowledge, technology and institutions which are relevant and useful for us. Syed Hussein Al-Attas (1972) has observed a few decades before, namely, in the rise of the ‘captive mind’. As explicated by Alatas in his book ‘The Captive Mind in Development Studies’, the captive mind is the way of thinking is dominated by Western thought patterns in an imitative and uncritical manner. Some of the basic characteristics of a captive-mind person are as follows:

1. A captive mind is uncreative, and hence incapable of raising original problems.

2. It is incapable of devising an analytical method independent of current stereotypes.

3. It is incapable of separating the particular from the universal in science and thereby properly adapting the universally valid corpus of scientific knowledge to the particular situation.

4. It is fragmented in outlook.

5. It is alienated from the major issues of the community.

6. It is alienated from its own national and religious traditions in the field of its intellectual pursuit.

7. It is unconscious of its own captivity and the conditioning factors making it what it is.
8. It is not amenable to an adequate quantitative analysis but it can be studied through empirical observations.

9. It is the result of the Western intellecto-cultural dominance on the rest of the world. (pg. 192)

Besides that, Islamic economics nowadays is too focused in Islamic banking and finance. In relation to Islamic economics, most Muslims will start to think about Islamic banking. According to Khaled A. Hussein (2007):


A large part of those economists who have or had the ambition to develop a scientific theory of Islamic economics and development of an Islamic economic system are not very appreciative of directions in which Islamic banking system has developed itself. They do not see a direct relationship in this development and the claim that Islamic economics promises a paradigm to give a better economic future to mankind. The fundamental pillars of Islamic economics like emphasis on economic justice, endogen zing Islamic ethics into objective function and market behaviour, significance of risk sharing in developing productive organizations etc. are hardly visible in the development of Islamic banking (pg.57).


The progress of Islamic banking in the last thirty years is unprecedented; therefore there are many issues and objections arising. It mostly relates to the Shariah issues regards to the products promotes by the Islamic banks. While in Islamic Economics, with its concern for justice, equity, poverty, and its multidimensional conception of human development represents a paradigm shift and a radical alternative to conventional neoclassical views.

Asad Zaman (2008) said:
“Numerous papers introduce islamic concepts entirely within a neoclassical framework, or else make minor adjustments to it, and therefore cannot from a basis for a paradigm shift. Another set of papers discusses the radical concepts offered by islam in a general philosophical way, without offering any means of operationalizing these concepts (pg.2).

In addition, Asad Zaman (2008) was among the scholars in Islamic economics that believe that we should have our own framework instead of imitating the Western style of economics. Among the points that he pointed out in most of his papers is that Islam urges the feeding of the poor, and condemns those who do not do this, Muslim economists have brought up the issue of poverty in their writings well before mainstream economics were paying attention to it. However we have participated only marginally in the huge literature which has since developed ­literature on basic needs, measurement of poverty. From my opinion, because of too focusing in Islamic banking makes we neglect other elements that are also important in the development of the Islamic economics.

Counter Argument and Refutation

However, the opponents argue that the development in Islamic Economics, in the midst of the awakening of the Islamic Ummah, has in actual fact regained its momentum. This phenomenon can be seen occurring at both the theoretical and implementation level. Since more than a decade ago, we have seen vast literature on Islamic Economics, in the form of pamphlets, articles, seminarial papers and books being published. According to Syed Omar Syed Agil (2005), concomitant with these efforts include the continuous development in the teaching of Islamic Economics and the discussion on the subject matter in conferences, seminars, religious events, organized by political and non-political organizations throughout the Muslim World.

Nevertheless, this argument and claims seemed to be untrue and can be refuted based on the argument given by Prof Aslam Haneef (2009). He said that despite the active interest in the area of Islamic banking and finance, one is still faced with the fact that research in Islamic economics has declined. In the context of Kulliyah of Economics and Management Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, the research agenda and publication record in the area of Islamic economics is still very much in its infancy. Even the number of academician and researcher who are fully dedicated in this field are not enough, indicating a serious need to re-focus on creating the next generation of Islamic economists especially the graduate from Kuliyyah Economics and Management Sciences. Moreover, the enthusiasm of the late 1970s and 1980s Islamic Economist Scholars has gone and the growth rate of people still actively working in Islamic economies especially in the higher education has declined because of the wealth attraction from the banking industry. Thus, the next generation of Islamic economists has become quite a rare breed. According to him, in order to face these problems we must devote sufficient resources, both financial and human, to do research in what is called the ‘missing fard ‘ayn’ component in Islamic economics, banking and finance for example is the foundation or usul of Islamic economics.

In addition, it would probably be accepted that a huge proportion of these publications and research nowadays are focuses more on Islamic banking and finance, not in Islamic economics, especially in areas dealing with the theory and foundations. According to Nazim Ali (2007) some major publishing houses based in the west have become involved in publishing materials in Islamic Economics and Finance. However, a cursory look into the titles produced in the last five years indicates a very clear bias to Islamic banking and Finance. The missing part is Islamic Economics. It can be conclude that the commercial interest and market forces totally determined the direction and areas of research. Thus this unhealthy trend must be stop and cannot allow this to continue.

Besides, the allocation of fund to do research is mainly for the Research and Development (R&D) for Science and Technology. It is a fact that Muslim countries, even those that are considered Middle-income, are not spending what they should be on R&D especially on the area of Islamic Economics. We can conclude that the amount of money spend on the development of Islamic Economics would be relatively small.

Recommendation and Conclusion

Majority of the people do not really understand what Islamic economics is about. They think Islamic economics is just about the transaction that is free from riba. In fact, they also do not know what is riba really is? Hence, to understand the term and definition of Islamic economics is very important. Again, Islamic economics also did not just deal with Islamic banking alone; it covers every aspect of human life. Therefore, there should be awareness among Muslims to show the need of Islamic economics in our daily life especially for the policymakers, bankers, the business community, industrialists, Shariah Scholars, students of business and economics and the people at large need to know what Islamic economics is, what its features and philosophy are and how it works.

In addition, from the academic perspective, we have to establish our own Islamic knowledge. In simple word, the Islamic scholars should produce more books and papers regarding education on Islamics Economics as a whole. Moreover, the books and papers should be written in Islamic ways, which does not neglect the standing of Al-Qur’an and Sunnah and must be comprehensive in term of contents and etc. In addition to the Quran and Sunnah, Ijma, Qiyas and Ijtihad provide a hierarchical framework of sources of rules governing Islamic economics.

The observation shows that students are still dependent on the western scholar’s writing because of the small amount of books and papers regards to Islamic economics. The dependent towards western scholar’s writing may influence us. That is the reason why we are in need of the Islamization of Knowledge (IOK) as what mentioned by Ismail Faruqi (2009) in his framework which stated that IOK is about recasting the modern knowledge into the Islamic knowledge by redefining, reinterpreting, eliminating and etc. Also it is an attempt to instill (tadrib) the Islamic values and historical aspects of Islam into the modern discipline.


An important part of the future agenda should be to write systematic and uninterrupted history of economic thought in Islam. There is also a need to prepare textbooks on the subject to fulfil the growing needs of the departments of Economics in the wake of introducing study papers on the history of Islamic economic thought at the under graduate and graduate levels. Through education we may increase the number people who will strive for the implementation of Islamic economics. It is the time for us to return to the glory time of Islam where people from the western and all over the world are using our Muslim scholar’s writing in studies.

Besides, the most important thing that we need to focus is the Research and Development (RND) of Islamic Economics. It is true since the RND play a vital role in order to ensure the sustainability and existence of Islamic economics is practically be relevant which is covered all aspects of life especially when dealing with the Maqasid As-Shariah.

According to Muhammad Ayub (2007) :

“The primary objectives that Shariah tends to realize are the protection and preservation of:

1) Religion

2) Life

3) Progeny – family unit

4) Property

5) Intellect

6) Honour (pg 23)

In the context of Research and Development, the challenges facing by Islamic economics is to creating awareness among the stakeholders on a large scale and convincing the people that the theory or the model of Islamic economics is workable. Therefore, the amount for money spends on research regarding to Islamic economics must be at par with the level of amount spend on others research especially related to the science and technology.

It can be done by creatively create a fund that is endowment. Moreover, it is important for the researcher to convince all the stakeholders that the area on research of Islamic economics and the funds obtained will be used in the most efficient way. It would be a great mistake to under-fund research in Islamic economics more so to be eager to find for immediate results or the practical solutions.

From the above discussion, the writer stated that Islamic economics has not yet developed into a full-fledged, independent discipline based from the issues and also the situation above. However, there are a positive ways and approach has been taken in order to ensure the Islamic economics someday will develop into a full-fledged and independent discipline. It is because, the world nowadays somehow is starting to realize and see the importance of Islamic economics.

Therefore research and development about Islamic economics and effectiveness and efficiency of this system must be continuously going on. This is to prove to the society that Islamic economics has its own advantages that make it differ from the conventional economics. And most important is that these advantages had make Islamic economics the best system if were to compare to other systems.

Besides that we must have at least a country that already implement a holistic approach of Islamic economics. The reason is to show to the world that the facts about Islamic economics is not only good in theoretical but also in practical. Today we still did not have any country that is practicing Islamic economics. Thus we must have at least a country that is on the progress of establishing Islamic economics in that country.

References

Haque, Zial: “Nature and Methodology of Islamic Economics: An Appraisal” paper presented to the Eighth Annual General Meeting of the Pakistan Society of Development Economists, January 7-10, 1992, Islamabad’

Khaled A. Hussein: ‘Islamic Finance and Economics as Reflected in Research and Publications’ Paper presented at Workshop organized by INCIEF, Kuala Lumpur, 2007.

Khaled A. Hussein. Islamic Economics: Current State of Knowledge and Development of the Discipline. Retrieved August 28, 2009

Laliwala, I.J., “Islamic Economics: Some issues in definition and Methodology”, Journal of King Abdul Aziz University: Islamic Economics, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jeddah 1989, Pg. 129-131.

Lecture Note on ‘Islamization of Knowledge’, subject of Issues in Islamic Economics, Semester 1, 2009/2010

Mannan, Abdul (1986) Islamic Economics.Theory and Practice,The Islamic Academy Cambridge, p. 18.

Muhammad Ayub, Understanding Islamic Finance,Wiley Finance (2007) Pg.23

‘Research in Islamic Economics: The Missing Fard ‘Ayn Component’ Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Islamic Economics and Finance, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, April 1-3, 2008.

Syed Hussein Al-Attas, “The Captive Mind in Development Studies”, International Social Science Journal (ISSJ), Vol. 26 (4), 1974, Volume 24 (1), 1972

Zaman, Hasanuz, SM. 1984, “Definition of Islamic Economics”, Journal of Research in Islamic Economics, Vol. 1, No. 2, (winter 1984). Pg.85